Perspectives and commentary

 How Vanguard addresses climate risk

We provide an overview of how Vanguard addresses climate risk as an investor, an investment provider, and a company.

 Why climate change matters to long-term investors

As a fiduciary for more than 30 million Vanguard investors, we assess the implications of climate risk for long-term investors.

 Insights: Vanguard’s expectations on climate risk governance

We share our expectations that companies and their boards will effectively oversee, mitigate, and disclose material climate-related risks.

 Insights: Votes on key climate-related shareholder proposals

 Executive compensation: In uncertain times, good judgment is critical for boards

In this Insights, Vanguard emphasizes a long-term outlook on executive compensation during times of crisis.

 Support for an independent chair at Boeing

This proxy voting rationale highlights a recent vote to support an independent chairman proposal at Boeing.

 Vanguard 2020 Investment Stewardship Semiannual Engagement Update

This midyear update provides details on Investment Stewardship's voting and engagement activities for the six months ended December 31, 2019.

 Vanguard's perspective on board diversity

Why we urge boards to seek greater diversity across a wide range of personal characteristics.

 Vanguard Investment Stewardship 2019 Annual Report

This report provides an overview of Vanguard’s global Investment Stewardship Programme over the 12-month period ended June, 30 2019.

 2019 Investment Stewardship: In focus: Europe

This brief focuses on our advocacy and engagement with companies based in Europe for the 12 months ended 30 June 2019, including our proxy votes. It also includes commentary on governance matters in Europe, including a spotlight executive remuneration.

 What we do. How we do it. Why it matters.

In this commentary, we discuss Vanguard's approach to investment stewardship, our role as a provider of both index and actively managed funds, and our definition of sustainable investing.

 Vanguard funds plan to grant proxy voting to external managers

Vanguard has decided to grant proxy voting responsibilities to external portfolio managers for the portions of their funds that they manage.

 Vanguard 2019 Investment Stewardship Semiannual Engagement Update

In this midyear update, Vanguard's Investment Stewardship team shares examples of the dialogues it has had with hundreds of company leaders and directors.

 Vanguard Investment Stewardship 2018 Annual Report

This report outlines our philosophy on corporate governance and describes our advocacy and engagement activities in the U.S. and abroad for the 12-month period ended June 30, 2018. The report also includes insights into our voting record during the last proxy year.

 2018 Investment Stewardship: In focus: Europe

This brief focuses on our advocacy and engagement with companies based in Europe for the 12 months ended 30 June 2018, including our proxy votes.

 Engaging with Vanguard: A guide for company boards and management teams

During the last proxy season, Vanguard's Investment Stewardship team voted at more than 18,000 company meetings. Here is a quick guide on how to set up an engagement with our team.

 Vanguard Investment Stewardship 2017 Annual Report

This annual report on our investment stewardship activities covers the 12-month period ended June 30, 2017. The report describes our engagements with corporate leaders and our advocacy for governance practices that support the best economic interests of long-term investors.

 Chairman Bill McNabb's 2017 letter to portfolio companies

In his letter to the largest companies in which Vanguard funds invest, Chairman Bill McNabb conveys our perspectives and expectations regarding board composition, risk management and shareholder engagement.